Global Metal Pricing
It is vital to know how the prices are determined in the global metal industry. The price of metals is not only important for producers and consumers, but it also affects the economic and market conditions of other industries.
The price of metals, the same as other commodities, is fundamentally determined by the equilibrium of supply and demand. However, the key fact here is that the information about the supply (production and inventory) and the demand (consumption) of the metal industry is not readily available, accurate, and transparent, regardless of the type of metal. Added to that, it is important to acknowledge that the price of metals is determined not only by the current supply and demand, but also by the expectations for the future supply and demand. In general, the less information available, the greater the price volatility.
Nowadays, large service industries have been established to research, report, and advise on the prices of particular metals. Countless websites now report metal prices. Most of these research and reporting efforts focus on basic metals such as copper, nickel, zinc, and lead. In recent years, however, more attention has been paid to minor metals, including rare-earth elements.
Metal pricing mechanisms range from the contracts, which are traded online according to the London Metal Exchange (LME) or the world's largest physical futures trading exchange (COMEX), to major cash exchanges between buyers and sellers. It is interesting to know that the London Metal Exchange (LME) provides a degree of risk reduction for buyers and investors, by storing and disseminating data on the base-metal inventories.
Global Metal Trading Companies
Canada Metals is one of the global metal trading companies in the world, which provides high-quality metals to meet our respected clients’ needs all around the world. Some of the common metals provided by Canada Metals include: zinc, lead, copper, aluminum, and iron. Having said that, different specifications are available to meet the various requirements of our clients. Please complete the purchase form with as-accurate-as-possible details to get a reasonable deal for you.
A metal trader will have everything under control, such as matters concerning insurance, transportation, and warehousing. You can expect these professionals to work closely with you, as you strive to achieve successful transactions.
Working with a metal trader would be especially beneficial for small- and medium-sized businesses. At Canada Metals, we can provide all the services you need.
How to Purchase Metals in Canada to Meet Industrial Needs?
If you are looking to learn how to purchase metals in Canada, you have come to the right place. At Canada Metals, we sell high-quality industrial metals to suit your specific needs. The selection of metals, we provide, assures the maximum quality and the long-lasting durability.
Poor strength of metals is one of the common problems that give rise to risks, like damage to the buildings and the products. This condition can be alleviated by making the use of quality metals. Contact us today to learn more.
Mines in Canada
Canada's minerals and metals contribute to its economic growth, and are also considered as the building blocks of the society, that without them, buildings, transportation networks, and vehicles won't be possible to be built. There are several mines in Canada, including:
- Blue Hawk Mine
- Britannia Mine
- Estella Mine
- Birchtree Mine
- Bernic Lake Mine
- Bucko Lake Mine
- Tanco Mine
- And many more
There are a lot of mines as well in Newfoundland & Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nova Scotia, and Ontario.
Investment in Canada's Mining Industry
Investment in Canada’s mining industry can be truly worthwhile. Canada is noted as having a wide abundance of natural resources that are mined and sold on the international market. Canada is a forward-thinking nation that demonstrates a high commitment to the reduction of emissions during the mining process, which makes the mining process more environmentally-friendly.
Since Canada supplies much of the world’s demand in terms of the mining needs, this is a prime time for investors to make the leap and wisely invest in the strong mining industry of Canada. Many people find Canada as one of the prime places for investments, when it comes to deciding to strategically invest in the mining industry. The economy of Canada is one of the most stable economies in the world, which provides a higher level of security for those, who want to invest in Canada’s mining industry.
Main Metals in Canada
Canada produces more than 60 different kinds of minerals. The top five main metals that Canada produces are copper, iron ore, nickel, zinc, and gold.
Of the top five key metals that Canada produces, the production of iron ore is the largest by volume, reaching more than 50 million tons in 2018 with an estimated market value of almost $5 billion. Copper is the next largest in volume with more than 500,000 tons produced in 2018, with an estimated market value of more than $4 billion.
Zinc and nickel production reached about 266,000 tons and 175,000 tons in 2018, respectively. The estimated market value of the Canadian zinc production in 2018 was $1 billion, while the estimated market value of nickel was almost $3 billion.
Amongst the top five main metals that Canada produces, gold is the smallest in terms of volume, with only about 180 kilograms produced in 2018, but its estimated market value of $9.5 billion dwarfs all other metals.
Mining Industry in Canada
Mining has a long history in Canada, going all the way back to the 16th century. However, mining as a large-scale industry in Canada only began late in the 18th century, with the opening of an iron ore mine at Forges du Saint-Maurice (located in Quebec). Currently, mining is one of the most important industries in Canada, contributing significantly to the economy and providing employment for a large number of Canadian workers.
The mining industry in Canada made a contribution of $97 billion to Canada’s economy in 2018, which is equivalent to approximately 5% of Canada’s total nominal gross domestic product (GDP). In terms of employment, mining accounts directly/indirectly for more than 600,000 jobs throughout Canada. Approximately one out of 30 jobs in Canada are related to the mining industry.
The mining industry also contributes remarkably to Canada’s exports, accounting for almost 20% of its domestic exports in 2018. It is interesting to know that mining activities take place all over the country in every province and territory.
Iron concentrate is regarded as a product, which needs to enriched with elements that are combined with the natural mineralogical elements of the iron, to make it ready for additional metallurgical processing. Iron concentrate is sold as a product for commercial usage and is being used in many different industries. It is a semi-finished product, which should be processed for the sake of making pellets, used in metallization or for blast furnaces.
The good news is that iron concentrate does not contain any toxins. It is also noted as being non-flammable. Moreover, iron concentrate is safe to ship to customers. As a result, iron concentrate is being shipped in large quantities to many consumers across the globe.
Due to the low iron content in the deposits, after iron ore’s extraction, the iron ore needs to be refined through the concentrating process. The concentrating process consists of several stages, including crushing, grinding, refining, and dewatering.
Iron ore refers to the rocks, containing sufficiently-large proportions of metallic iron oxides, which can be extracted at a profit. If the proportion of metallic iron oxide in a rock is too low, then, the rock cannot be considered to be iron ore.
Rocks that contain large quantities of extractable iron can take on different colors, such as dark gray, vibrant yellow, dark violet, or rust red. There are five major types of iron oxides found in iron ore that are economically profitable for mining: magnetite, hematite, goethite, limonite, and siderite.
Iron ores, containing magnetite and hematite, are called “direct shipping ore”, because they contain not less than 60% of pure iron content in them. Magnetite contains 72.4% pure iron, while hematite contains 69.9% pure iron. Iron ores containing hematite are easier to process and extract, but ores that contain magnetite typically have fewer impurities and are better in quality.
Iron ore is a mineral that contains iron (Fe) and must be refined before use. To refine this stone, the fusion and reduction processes must be performed. It is one of the most abundant metal rocks on the Earth and it can be said that about 5% of the Earth's entire crust is iron oxide.
After identifying the underlying mines, engineers extract the iron ore and prepare it to de-compose the impurities and obtain the pure metal. The refined iron is very vulnerable to oxidation. In fact, in order to be suitable for the use in solid metal structures in various industries, it must be initially alloyed with other elements, which are generally carbon, nickel, and chromium.
Finally, it is worth indicating that the use of iron ore is innumerable, because of its high stability, availability, and cheapness.
Aluminum ingots are environmentally-friendly metal materials, which have heat and electric conductivity. They also have corrosion resistance, malleability, lightness, and recyclable features, which enable their wide use in many industries, like electricity, construction, transportation, and consumable products.
Aluminum ingots are also re-melted to produce other aluminum products. This is done through a process of cold or hot works, or by re-melting and casting in a foundry. Aluminum ingots have the malleability to be rolled back into sheet products, like cans or car body sheets. Other shapes and sizes could be customized according to the client's needs.
Aluminum ingots with the best quality are those with the highest possible density. They are in demand, because they are generally one of the least-costly metallic forms and are very useful in many applications. To produce the best possible aluminum ingots, the raw materials can undergo crystallization, solid state, and other super-high purification processes, like sublimation.
Aluminum ingot is a non-ferrous product, which is produced by pouring molten aluminum into special molds. These molds come in a variety of sizes and shapes, and the ingots created have different types in appearance. Today, aluminum is one of the most-widely used metals in the world. The widespread use of this metal in various industries has led to a special attention to its identification and extraction from mines.
Alumina is a chemical compound that has the chemical formula of Al2O3. Alumina is derived from bauxite, which is a metal ore, typically found on the top-most layers of soil in tropical or sub-tropical areas.
When alumina is refined from processing bauxite, it takes on the appearance of a white powder, looking like table salt or fine sugar crystals. The primary method for the extraction of alumina from processing bauxite ore is the Bayer extraction process. This process was initially discovered in 1887 and is still widely being used, accounting for about 50% of the total supply of alumina around the world.
To successfully derive pure aluminum from alumina, it has to be subjected to the Hall-Héroult electrolysis. However, producing pure aluminum is not the only use for alumina. It is also used as an ingredient for industrial manufacturing, such as producing metallic paint and spark plug insulators.
Aluminum oxide is used as an abrasive and a slow-melting material, and is mostly used in the production of aluminum metal. It is one of the most important materials, used in laboratories, industries, and various jobs. The most prominent features of this material are its great strength, perfect hardness, and high melting temperature.
Aluminum oxide comes in many forms, such as crystalline and non-crystalline. Aluminum oxide has many applications, due to its special and extraordinary properties, and is being used in various industries.
Zinc Sulphide Concentrate
Zinc sulphide carries the formula of ZnS. It is an inorganic compound, which means that it lacks a carbon-hydrogen bond. Zinc sulphide contains several impurities that make it black in color, but it is white in its pure form. Zinc sulphide can also be transparent, and this only happens, when it is in a dense synthetic state. Most of zinc sulphide materials are brought into existence from waste materials. The standard processes of producing ZnS include smelting and slag.
Laboratory preparation of zinc sulphide requires a straight-forward process of mixing zinc and sulphur. A precipitation reaction is another method, used to acquire zinc sulphide. This reaction is because zinc and sulphur have soluble salts that form zinc sulphide. This insoluble salt cannot dissolve in water, leading to a formation of a precipitate.
In general, there are two main methods for producing zinc sulfide: Reduction of zinc sulfate with coke or anthracite in the furnace, and Sedimentation of the zinc sulfate’s solution using sodium sulfide and then, separation and drying of the produced zinc sulfide deposits.
Lead Sulphide/Oxide Concentrate
Lead sulphide (PbS) and lead oxide (PbO) concentrates are known as the earliest materials, used to act in the form of a semi-conductor. This is based on the fact that lead sulphide and oxide concentrates have the tendency to become crystallized, when placed in a solution that contains sodium chloride.
It is also used for the construction of photo optic devices and infrared detectors.
Copper Sulphide Concentrate
Copper sulphide concentrate is one of the best-chosen materials for the construction of nano-tubes and fibers. The high conduction property of copper sulphide is the main reason behind the application process. As per studies suggest, treating copper sulphide to a cold temperature of 1.6 K is found to be very effective in making the material super-conductive.
The copper sulphide compounds are generally seen in synthetic minerals in the form of chalcocite and covellite. Studies have confirmed the efficiency of copper sulphide for the treatment of cancer cells in the body. Apart from the medical applications, you can also make use of copper sulphide compounds for the production of lithium-ion batteries.
Copper mines are either open or underground sites. To produce copper concentrate, the ore extracted from the mine needs to be crushed into fine particles, through grinding and milling. In the concentrate plants, the particles are mixed with water and chemicals, and enter the condensation cells. By blowing air into these cells, the foam created brings the copper compounds up to the cells’ surface, and finally, a concentrate with a grade of more than 20% (depending on several factors) will be extracted.
According to the type of copper mineral, pyrometallurgical (thermal) methods and hydrometallurgical (leaching) methods can be deployed for its extraction and production. Copper is usually extracted through heat (melting) from sulfide concentrate, which contains copper sulfide and iron sulfide. In addition, oxide compounds can be processed by leaching.
Metal concentrates, also known as ore concentrates, are the products that come out of the metal ore mines. This product is oftentimes produced finely by removing the impurities and gangues (the discarded materials) and concentrating the metallic components and making them as pure as possible. One of the key efforts at the metal processing factories at mine sites would be to achieve the high purity of metal concentrates and that they are not mixed with less valuable metals.
Metal concentrates can have different concentrations, depending on how they are processed, how pure they are, their quality, the kind of base metal that is being refined, etc. It is even important how stable the base metal is, since certain types of metals have a tendency to liquefy during the transport, which makes them complicated to carry and haul. In fact, they are also classified as hazardous materials, under the SOLAS convention’s categorization.
Many different metals can be turned into metal concentrates, including iron, steel, copper, zinc, gold, and so forth. At Canada Metals, we position ourselves as one of the key industry players, when it comes to refining, producing, and manufacturing metal concentrates, and all of our materials are top of the line.
When speaking about metal ingots for the public audience, everyone may first imagine about the gold ingots, which are used for an easy storage of world-wide currencies. While this might be the most famous form of metal ingots throughout the world, it is not only gold that gets stored in the shape of metal ingots. Many other metals use this form for many reasons, since metal ingots are easier and more cost-effective to be transported and also, the high purity and the adequate structure will allow the metal processing operations.
Almost any metal can be made into ingots; from commonplace metals, such as steel and aluminum, to precious and semi-precious metals, such as gold. Ingots can be pure or alloys, depending on the material used, as well as the finality, they are going to be used for.
If you are in need of high-quality metal ingots, you have found one of the most trusted metal suppliers in Canada. At Canada Metals, we pride ourselves in providing high-quality metals for all our clients, no matter their target industry.
Metal Assay Determination Laboratories
Several testing protocols and standards exist to protect buyers, whenever they purchase metals. Metal assay determination laboratories are the important agencies, who ensure each transaction through testing or assaying.
The testing methods utilized nowadays derive from both traditional and modern techniques. Depending on the type of metals being tested, a particular technique might be more effective than others.
Make sure that you only work with reputable metal assay determination laboratories, since they possess with the right equipment, which will help you verify the assay of metals.
How Metal Processing Factories Work
Raw metals undergo several processes before they become usable for particular applications. These specialized mine-specific processes take place in a metal processing factory.
Through the utilization of heavy machinery and equipment, raw metals get transformed in many ways, including cutting, welding, forming, burning, and more. After accomplishing these steps, it is officially ready to create the final product.
Our Expertise in Supplying Metals
When it comes to our expertise in supplying metals, we are pleased to have our rich experiences in supplying metals to clients around the globe. We have an in-depth experience in regard to the metal trading industry on a global scale for many different types of metals. The primary types of metals that we are able to supply to customers around the globe include lead sulphide/oxide concentrate, copper sulphide concentrate, alumina, iron concentrate, iron ore, zinc sulphide concentrate, as well as aluminum ingots.
When clients are in need of metal ingots or metal concentrates, we are grateful to supply metals for the packaging industry, the construction industry, the computer industry, the aerospace industry, the automotive industry, as well as many other types of industries. We are able to source metals that are of high quality for fair prices that are derived from the richest mines of Canada. Feel free to reach out us via purchase form.
New York Mercantile Commodity Exchange (COMEX)
If there is a forex market for foreign exchange and a stock market for stocks, there is COMEX for commodities. COMEX stands for New York Mercantile Commodity Exchange. Previously, it was known as Commodity Exchange Inc. It was then acquired by NYMEX in 1994 and became its division that handles metals trading. COMEX is the biggest futures and options trading market for metals in the world. It serves as an intermediary and doesn't supply metals.
COMEX operates from the World Financial Center located in Manhattan. According to its major group, which is Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), there are more than 400,000 futures and options, traded in COMEX every day. This makes COMEX one of the most liquid metals exchanges globally. Also, what traders do in COMEX affects the current price of metals in the world.
London Metal Exchange (LME)
London Metal Exchange (LME) is a place, where industrial metals are traded. The most popular types of metals executed here are non-ferrous metal futures. LME is also a part of the HKEX Group. It serves as the bridge between the physical industry and the financial community. LME is also a link for investors to access the industry and learn more about the current prices and trades. Anyone, who is interested in buying or selling metals, can do it on LME, 24 hours a day.
LME also works on regulating the market by providing statutory requirements to ensure that the businesses on its market are being properly managed and thereby, protecting investors and their money. The regulation is mainly done by LME, but some members are regulated by FCA and other local regulators as well.